Roberto Firmino opened the scoring for the Copa America champions with a stunning lob after a Coutinho lay-off in the eighth minute.
As the half progressed, the livelier Senegal became, driven on by their captain Cheikhou Kouyate.
Famara Diedhiou levelled from the penalty spot just before half-time after Sadio Mane was dragged down in the area.
Neymar, who was not in the side that won the Copa America in June, had a relatively quiet game but went close with a 67th minute free-kick.
He then teed up Richarlison whose shot from the edge of the box flashed wide.
Ismaila Sarr and Mane both had chances to snatch the game for the Lions of Teranga.
Although he failed to get on the scoresheet, it was still a big day for the 27-year-old, who became one of seven Brazilians to reach 100 caps.
He has scored 61 goals for the Selecao, making him the third highest scorer in the history of his national team.
Neymar is one behind Ronaldo but needs 16 to catch Pele who only played 92 matches. He has also provided 41 assists.
He won an Olympic gold medal in Rio de Janeiro in 2016 but has experienced many disappointments for his national team, particularly at the World Cup.
In 2014, in Brazil, a back injury in the quarter-finals against Colombia prevented him from being on the field for the 7-1 semi-final thrashing from Germany.
He scored twice during the tournament in Russia four years later, but Brazil were dumped out at the quarter-final stage by Belgium.